Parathari life part 2:why is carbon important?

Parathari life part 2:why is carbon important?

Parathari life part 2:why is carbon important?

All known life is carbon-based, every kosheka uses its carbon and organic processes. We have a question that.

Is carbon a lone element that can form the basis of biological molecules?

why is carbon importan? Should life be carbon-based?

Or is the basis of life on earth because the conditions of the earth are suitable for carbon based life?
To answer all these questions, we see the major properties of organic chemicals which are the dust of the life of the Earth. This way we will provide a standard benchmark for the study of silicon or boron based life.


why is carbon important

Why is all known life based carbon?

The most subtle life is also very complex. There are some basic functions for every kind of life such as the absorption of food and nutrients, conversion of food to the energy, sewage treatment, repair or alteration of body parts, progeny creation etc. All these complexities are contained in an extremely subtle form. Capacitance in one of the cells, this complexity is comparatively more complicated than millions of times by any computer motherboard. It shows that there should be a lot of molecular mechanisms for life that can be able to do all these activities collectively. With this, we assume that for the basis of biological chemicals, we need an element that is capable of producing a huge molecular chain like Polymer and is able to create different types of chemical composition with different elements. On the basis of these two conditions, we can identify elements that have the ability to create biological chemicals.

There are two main reasons behind the necessity of polymer building capacity to build life. First, the construction of complex macromolecules is possible with the formation of these, which are made from simple simple molecules. Polymers are typical types of macromolecules, which make small molecular units of the same type. Macrocyte is important in biochemistry. With the use of only a few different macromolecules, many types of life-building units start to be produced. All ground organisms contain a protein called protein, which is made up of 20 different types of amino acids. Protein is the engine of any cocaine. Protein has to keep a large molecular shape to do its work, but it should also be kept in mind that it does not have any harmful reaction from other macromolecules. Secondary long polymer series is essential for the protection of zenatic information. Genital information is preserved in the form of DNA in all life on earth, which is a polymer made of four bases, sugars and phosphates. Any organism requires a giant-sized genetic information to build its offspring. For the storage and preservation of this information, it is necessary that the molecular series of excessive length is required. For any alien life, whether it is rare or bizarre, it will need an element that can make a polymer, even if the units producing that life are completely different from the life of the Earth.

Most people do not know what size of these molecules are, we will take some examples to show them. There are 466 amino acids in the average yeast (yeast) protein, which contains about 8000 atoms. The largest known protein can have 27,000 amino acids, which can contain 500,000 atoms. Bio-scientists have calculated that at least 200-500 genes are required for an organism's DNA function and every gene needs 1000 nucleotide base. This means that at least 80-200 million atoms in a DNA should be needed. Most organisms require more than one genes. For example, depending on self-based (which is not parasitic), there should be 1,300-2,300 genes in the organism's DNA, which means 5.2-9.2 million atom. These figures have been calculated keeping the life of the Earth in meditation, but despite the use of some other biochemistry on another planet, the size of the atoms will be similar to that.

Carbon and the Periodic Table

To understand the carbon well and to know how it differs from the other elements, we have to see the periodic table. Elements in the periodic table are deposited in accordance with their specific behavior, so that their middle relationships are discovered. Starting with the periodic table, on the basis of the knowledge of our chemistry, we can easily separate those elements which are not suitable for biochemistry. With this, we can concentrate on the remaining options of biochemistry and some of the remaining options.


carbon important

Elements of the periodic table are divided into three main categories: main group, transition metals, and inner transition metals. The main group, which is depicted in red in the picture, contains most of the common and familiar elements. Only about six elements (carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus) constitute 99% of the human body. In contrast, the transit metals (in green) and internal transit metals (in blue) have the importance of industries but their land is less in living. The reason behind this is that these elements are created in rare circumstances and form a large and complex molecular structure. None of these metals can form the basis of biochemistry. By separating them, only the elements of the main group survive.

Elements of the Mukhya group can be divided into four categories, non-metal, metal, metalloid and Nobel gas. Of these, non-essential elements that contain carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, sulfur and phosphorus (in green in the picture) are the protagonists of this article and they are the main parts of all known life. There is no role in the formation of complex molecules (in light blue) of the main group metals, so that they can not be the basis for alternative biochemical, it is a different matter that these metals will play a role in certain organisms. is. For example, the charge of ions of sodium and potassium flows through signals in the nerves, calcium is the main part of our bones and teeth. Metal-like elements (in orange color) are on the boundary of metals and non-metals.

The role of these metal-like elements in the life of earth is limited but important. Two of these elements are silicon and Boron is the neighbor of carbon in the periodic table and it is considered as an alternative to carbon in biochemical. We will discuss these elements in the article. The last fourth group is of Nobel Gases (pink color), making these compounds very rare from rare to rare conditions. We will not discuss these elements. The summary is that only non-metals (green) in the main group and some metal-like elements can create basic chemicals for life.

Important trends in the periodic table and why is carbon importan

We have selected the elements of the basis of life in the periodic table, now we can focus our attention on the elements of the upper right corner of the periodic table. From here we can compare the carbon effectively with all its neighboring elements. This comparison will be based on the knowledge of two important factors in the trend of behavior of elements in our periodic table. The first trend is that in the periodic table, elements of the vertical row are called groups and they represent the same chemical behavior. For example, the elements of a group create bonds with hydrogen atoms in the same number, such as carbon family four, nitrogen family three and oxygen family two etc. The second important trend is the horizontal line or cover in which the element is present. The chemical behavior of elements depends on their group, but some important properties depend on their enclosure such as the formation of multiple binding (double, dark) bond. From the set of these two trends, the chemical behavior of any element can be understood.
Characteristics of Carbon Life
Now we will see what such properties have in carbon which makes it so much more important. Chemical scientists have discovered five such properties of carbon, which prove why the lone element is the basis for biochemistry. Three of these qualities are shown in the periodic table.

why is carbon important

Ability to build four single binding: It is a general rule that members of the carbon family form four single binding, while neighboring Boron and Nitrogen family can only create three single binding. Other groups make only one or two single binding. This is the maximum capacity to create single bonds, except for some of the most compounds of connectivity. This means that the ability to produce various types of molecules of carbon is more than that of other groups.
Stable double and triple binding: carbon atom can make strong multiple bonds with carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus. Due to this, the variety of molecules produced by carbon increases multiplied. On the contrary, elements of the line below the carbon such as cilicans do not usually make multiple binding.

Construction of Aromatic Compounds: In the Aromatical Molecules, there is multiple binding in the shape of a ring between the atoms and these compounds are surprisingly enduring. Aromatics in chemistry does not mean semen. The most famous example of these compounds is benzene. They play an important role in many biological molecules due to the specific properties of aromatical molecules. Four major amino acids, all five nuclei and Hemoglobin, have the role of aromatic molecules in chlorophyll.

Strong Carbon - Carbon Bondage: Carbon-carbon single bond non-metals have the second strongest element of bond after H-H. There are two important effects on its life. The first carbon-based biomolecules are highly stable and last for a long time. Second steady automation (carbon-carbon bond) helps in forming the orange, long chain, branching molecular structure that becomes the basic structure for different compounds.

why is carbon important

An infinitely long series: One of the main attributes that define life is the production of a child, i.e. the creation of a replica of ourselves. For this ability, such molecules are required to store information in complex form. This work on Earth is done by DNA and RNA. The longer the molecular chain, the more information storage possible. Only carbon of all elements and to a point, Siliconan has the ability to build long complex molecules.

Due to all these properties, carbon can produce more complex, larger compounds than any other element. According to one approach, carbon can produce 10 million different compounds, in addition the infinite number can theoretically be possible molecules. It is also a fact that organic chemistry, which is studied as a different subject, will combine the chemistry of all other elements together and become more complex and complex than the science.

Stability of carbon based atoms

Before this we have seen that the elements of the main group can not bond more than four bonds, but this is an exception. In the periodic table, the third line and the elements below which comprise of silicon, exhibit hypertension in certain conditions and also make five or six bands. Elements of carbon and second line do not have this capability and they can produce as many as four binding. This quality appears to be contrary to our concept of being a special element of carbon, but is it really so?

There is a second aspect of not having the properties of superconductance in carbon, which increases its characteristic. Due to this inefficiency, the number of possible compounds decreases, but it increases the stability of organic matter. The reason for this is that if a carbon atom has four bonds, it will have to break one of the present binding before forming a new bond. For this process, energy will be necessary to break the bonds previously present. The total result is that the molecules in which the four bonds are sufficiently energy, are also slow in reacting with amorphous substances. The alternative of carbon against it will not be silicone, it will make the fifth binding while displaying the hypertension. For example, methane CH4 is permanent in the air (absence of spark or light), while cilane (SiH4) responds rapidly with oxygen in the air.


The basis of all biological molecules on Earth is carbon, if carbon treated like cilacan, then all these molecules caused by life would get easily scattered or they could make life impossible when they reacted sharply to the temperature of the Earth and continued to form new compounds. According to chemists Michael Davar and Ammon Healy, life is possible only because of non-hypertension and stability in carbon.

The result is that carbon is special.

In 1961 physicist Robert Dicke had said that "it is known that carbon is necessary to become a physical scientist." Clearly, no other element can even come near the chemical properties and characteristics of carbon. Based on this, biochemistry scientist Norman Pace had said that wherever there is a presence of life, it will universally follow the biochemistry rules of the same nature. In other simple words, it can be said that life in anywhere in the universe will be carbon based only, it will be similar to that of the Earth, it is another thing that it will not replicate the earth.
Is this the Carbon Chauvinism?

Not all scientists agree that carbon is essential for life. Carbon can be ideal for life on planets like Earth, but according to some scientists, rare life on other planets is also possible. In 1973, Carl Sagan used the term chauvinism for those who believed in the life of the Earth as ideal for the life of the whole universe. For example, they had said that for all types of life, they considered the temperature of the earth as ideal, they called the temperature chauvinism, those who considered oxygen mandatory for life as oxygen chauvinism. In this case, this carbon is blindfolded, according to which we believe that life should be carbon based, as per our knowledge all life is carbon based. Whether carbon is the basis of life in reality or we have not done proper studies on other options.

Carl Sagan's argument is the basis that we have the same kind of life for the study, the life of the Earth Therefore it would be immaturity to dismiss other options of life prospects without proper study. According to a second argument, the study of organic chemistry as chemists did not do the study of silicon chemicals, this is Selection Bias. In simple words, it is possible that chemists have eroded silicon-based life without proper study of potential molecules formed by cilicana chemicals and silicon. The concern of Carl Sagan is justified.


Question 1: Why are we concentrating on the elements of the waiting period? Can life not be created from any other element which we do not know other than these elements? Can not life be made from antimatter?

Answer: Physics rule is common in all the universe. This means that the rules that apply in the Earth or Solar System, the same rules apply to the whole universe. Earth or Solar System is not special.

Whatever we see in the universe, it is made of elements. Elements are determined by the number of protons in its atomic nucleus. Changing the number of protons in the nucleus changes the element.

For example, nucleus 1 proton i.e. hydrogen, 2 protons i.e. hallium, 3 protan - lithium, 4 protan-barium, 5 protan-boran, 6 protan -carbon, 7 protan-nitrogen, 8 protan-oxygen ... .. 82 protan ledge .

82 After the Proton, the elements of the radio are activated, that is, after some time they are broken into small elements. These are also harmful to life.

This means that only 82 elements are available in the universe, biochemistry will use these 82 elements for life.

Question 2: Can life not be made from antimatter?

Answer: Life can be manufactured from Anti Mater. But the laws of physics are similar to ordinary matter for antimatter. Proton anti-proton in anti-miter, electron-pajetron, neutron-antenatalization. Atomic substances are antiparturites. Everything else is similar.

If the life in ordinary matter is carbon-based then the antimatter will be based on anticarcin. Instead of water, anti-hydrogen will be antigen made of antioxion. These lives will be on planets, stars made from antimatter.

But there are two problems in it: 1: The antimatter can not remain between the substance, because it collides with the substance and destroys both and turns into energy. For the antimatter life, the planet, star, and galaxy created with antimatter. There is no evidence of the presence of large amounts of antimatter in the inspection till date. The antimatter has not been seen so that there is no galaxy or a star or planet created by it.

2: Perhaps we could never interact with an antimatter life. If we join hands with an antimava, then both will be destroyed.

Question 3: Can life not be made from dark matter (black matter)?

Answer: Shyam material is a mystery for us. It does not react to ordinary matter. We can only feel his gravity. Broadly we know that this universe gives shape / base to the structure of galaxies. But there is no evidence of any other physical or chemical activities by it. This creates the possibility of creating life, is negligible, if we are, we will never see him in the absence of any reaction from the simple matter that we have created.

Question 3: Can life in parallel universe not be made from an unknown substance?

Answer: 1. The life of physics will not be different in the parallel universe, in this situation there will be life similar to our universe.

If the rules of physics are different in the parallel universe, then we will never find it. Because we will not have any means of contact with those universes. We, our tools, vehicles, communication media are governed by the rules of our universe, and they will not be able to work only when they are driven by different rules of the parallel universe.
The parallel universe means the universe at the same distance, this word only keeps these universes out of our reach.

Question 4: Can life not be formed from any unknown substance in any other dimension?

Answer: Presently, there is no evidence of the presence of other dimensions except the fourth dimension in the form of three dimensions of space and time. According to string theory, 11 to 25 dimensions are possible. But this is only the concept, its experimental or inspection has not yet confirmed any.

1. According to some scientists of String Thori, these dimensions are only at the quantum level, these dimensions do not exist in the level of matter.

2. If these dimensions exist, then the life in these dimensions will be from these 82 elements because the laws of physics will not be different in those unknown dimensions.

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